Literature Review: Graduate Recruitment and Selection | Examples and Samples

 

literature review on recruitment and selection

Chapter 2 LITERATURE REVIEW Recruitment Recruitment is one of the major functions of HRM. It helps the manager to attract and select best candidates for the organization. Parry & Wilson () stated that “recruitment includes those practices and activities carried out. Literature review of Recruitment and Selection in International Human Resource Management Introduction Staffing is one of the main functions on Human Resource Management, refer to International Human Resource Management perspective, staffing will be more important on the managing by the headquartered company to their subsidiaries in order to gain more competitive advantage for them. Literature Review on Recruitment and Selection Practices of RBL Submitted to: Dr. Mohammad Thoufiqul Islam Associate Professor Department of Management University of Dhaka Submitted by: Md. Mahmudul Hassan Munna MBA Serial NO: Department of Management University of .


Literature Review of Recruitment and Selection in International Human Resource Management Essays


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Recruitment and selection forms the foundation of the core activities and processes underlying human resource management and such activities include the acquisition, training and development, and rewarding performance of workers Gilmore, and Williams, The success and sustainability of most organizations is directly proportional to skills and competencies of the employees.

Equally, the entry point into any organization is dependent on the effectiveness of the recruitment and selection practices of the hiring team within the organization. In light of this, competition in the UK employment market has increased tremendously over the past few decades. This can be attributed to the inability of the employment market to absorb the growing pool of graduates from institutions of higher learning.

According to Mohamed Branine,literature review on recruitment and selection, p. Mohamed argues that the causes of this phenomenon can be in part due to the complexities associated with the selection of the most qualified individuals and as well, due to the availability of several graduates in different disciplines from Ivy League institutions.

To that purpose, the demand for quality graduates will remain highly competitive, the most advantaged recruiters will be those with strong recruitment policies, coupled with exceptional training and development policies. In some instances, financial abilities of potential recruiters will play a substantial role in future graduate recruitment and selection processes. Varied researches and studies have been carried out and written up regarding the aspect of graduate recruitmentthe attitudes literature review on recruitment and selection graduates, and the attitudes of recruiters with respect to choosing their employers, and as well, the perceptions of graduates towards their formative years in the employment sector.

Covered in past researches also includes the influences of management executives on recruiting activities, the strategies and methods used to conduct and communicate information regarding the recruitment processliterature review on recruitment and selection, and reliability and accuracy of the recruiting tools and instruments. Much of this research has, however, concentrated on different aspects within the recruitment and selection process in different organizations across the work.

In setting the context for the research undertaken in this paperthis research limits itself to the discussion of graduate recruitment and selection process in the United Kingdom. It aims to cover the gap that existed in previous researches that have been covered and written up on the field of graduate recruitment and selection process by limiting the aspect of generalizations and concentrating on particular aspects.

To that purpose, it will define the concept of graduate recruitment, examine the changes and types in the strategies and methods of graduate recruitment and selection used in UK-based organizations, and identify the reasons behind the variations in the changes and developments, literature review on recruitment and selection.

Additionally, this literature review will examine graduate recruitment tools and mechanisms applied in various recruitment processes, and as well, highlight particular aspects that interest employers or recruiters during the graduate recruitment process Raybould, and Sheedy, Finally yet important, the literature review will provide a consistent conclusion based on the analysis of the graduate recruitment and selection process in the UK and possibly offer recommendations regarding future researches in general, and the graduate recruitment and selection process in particular.

Therefore, any reference made herein referring to graduates will be referring to applicants holding either an undergraduate degree or a postgraduate degree, literature review on recruitment and selection. Majority of individuals in these categories is prepared to handle the complexities associated with diverse forms of employment and work.

Simply put, their institutions equipped them with the requisite knowledge and skills required in the employment market. Graduate recruitment and selection forms an essential part in the central activities underlying the management of human resources within many organizations.

These activities include the acquisition of talent, training and developing the talent, and eventually rewarding the performance of the acquired talent. As such, the recruitment and selection process forms an integral part of the works undertaken by human resource management and other specialists involved in the graduate and recruitment process. According to Mohamed Braninep.

The graduate recruitment and selection process is structured in such a manner that it involves planned rational activities comprising of particular sequentially linked phases within the employee resourcing process. Graduate recruitment and selection process comprises of two aspects that can be broken down to its constituent parts. Raybould, and Sheedy,p. As such, the recruitment activity can be outsourced literature review on recruitment and selection outside agencies but the selection cannot be outsourced and this explains the reason as to why it is advantageous to treat the two items separately.

Speaking of the roles, the recruitment and selection process plays a pivotally important role in any organization as far as shaping the performance and effectiveness is concerned.

This premise suggests that following an effective and efficient strategy in recruiting and selecting workers enables organizations to avoid undesirable costs such as high staff turnover costs, poor performance among workers, and dissatisfied customers Raybould, and Sheedy, Eventually, it engenders a mutually beneficial employment relationship within the organization and it can be evidenced by increased commitment among the involved workers.

To this purpose, the recruitment and selection process forms an integral part in the organizational process of leading and managing people and the recruitment and selection process is increasingly important in the strengthening of competitive advantage within that organization. The objective of this review is to examine and uncover the effectiveness of the recruitment and selection process among UK-based organizations. As noted, graduate recruitment and selection process forms an essential part in the central activities underlying the management of human resources within many organizations Gilmore, and Williams, Mohamedp.

The list of desirable qualities among employers has become sophisticated desirable qualities from job applicants. The Association of Graduate Recruiters reports recruitment and hiring agencies receive thousands of applications from graduatesbut the employers still find it difficult to find the applicants who meet their quality. Could there be a problem with the recruiting and selection process?

Do graduate applicants fail to fulfill the hiring needs, literature review on recruitment and selection, qualities, or qualifications? These are examples of questions that need answers in order to understand the reasons as to why employers still find it difficult to get the right candidates for their jobs Shiona, Despite the availability of limited vacancies, potential employers have had to cope with increased literature review on recruitment and selection of job applicants.

Mohamed argues that employers in the UK search for graduates, who are capable of adding value to their economic strength and well, enhance their reputation, literature review on recruitment and selection. Employers often recruit workers whom they can train and develop in order to utilize their skills and knowledge Roberts, Nevertheless, what does it take to be a good graduate? What processes do employers use to identify good graduates? Another important revelation of the recruitment and selection process within the UK job industry is the relationship between the employment graduate labor market and the higher education sector.

While higher education is supposed to nurture and prepare graduates for the job market by enhancing knowledge and learning, it is not their duty to secure employment opportunities for the graduates. This can be attributed to the fact that the higher education market is responsible for preparing graduates to fit the needs of different employment sectors thereby making it difficult to provide training to specific individuals.

An exploratory study by Carless revealed that institutions of higher learning play critical roles in ensuring efficiency and efficacy among graduates. Among the highly adopted strategies are the use virtual selection methods such video interviews, telephones, and internet means. Traditionally, organizations in the UK recruiting industry found it a lot easier to recruit candidates from the list of job applicants, who accepted any form of job offering Mohamed,p.

In the contemporary UK job market, thousands of applicants can apply for vacant job positions but it becomes a difficult task to recruit the ideal candidate. This can be attributed to the different trends and developments that have occurred in the recruitment and selection methods. Increased competition among graduate employers, literature review on recruitment and selection, technological advancements, and socio-economic and political changes are other factors that literature review on recruitment and selection led to complexities in the recruitment and selection processes.

Keenan postulates that the recruitment and selection process in the UK follows a sequential process referred to as the resourcing cycle. As earlier mentioned, the recruitment and selection process follows some defined sequences characterized by distinct and inter-linked stages. These sequences are referred to as the resourcing cycle of the recruitment and selection process.

This cycle begins when graduates identify an available vacancy and ends when the selected candidate literature review on recruitment and selection up to the expectation of the case by performing to the required standards. To graduate, the organization is a prospective employer while to the organization the candidate is evaluated to fill the vacancy Raybould, and Sheedy, In order to ensure that best candidates are selected to a particular post, it is forcefully crucial that the recruitment and selection process be handled in a timely and professional manner characterized by effectiveness and efficiency.

The first step of the recruitment and selection process entails the announcement of a vacant position within an organization. At times, situations exist where a vacant position resulting after an employee leaves are organization is replaced with automated machines. If the decision is made that, the vacant position requires to be filled, job specifications are drawn down to reflect the duties and requirements needed for that job in addition to requisite skills, experiences, and personal attributes.

The next step involves the process of attracting candidates in order to produce a large pool of applicants from where the ideal candidate will be selected. Very often this function of the recruitment and selection process are outsourced to recruiting and hiring agencies in order to eliminate the number of unsuitable candidates applying for the vacant position.

The selection process generates an optimum number of job seekers and the majority of applicants are rejected during this stage. Many things happen during this stage because the recruitment tools and strategies are applied during this stage including interviews, face-to-face meetings, and other forms of communicating the selection procedure. Once the recruiting tools and methods have been utilized, recruitment decisions are made and the actual selection is made.

Nonetheless, the selection process does not mark the end of the job recruitment and selection exercise because their abilities and capabilities to perform the allotted job to maximum cannot be ascertained. To avoid uncertainties regarding the capabilities of selected individuals, a probationary period is imposed whereby the performance and potential of employees is assessed and evaluated.

This period marks the transition period or the post selection phase where the selected employees are inducted and integrated into the organization. This is a critical process because the selected candidates are taught several issues relating to the organization such as the organizational culture, literature review on recruitment and selection, normal routines, and ethical processes within the organization. The final stage under the resourcing cycle is the evaluation of the entire post-selection process and conducting a reflection of the lessons learnt from the entire process and as well, suggesting future implications.

According to survey findings undertaken to determine the causes of variations in recruitment methods used by employers in UK, each year, 91 per cent of employers and potential graduate recruits prefer the internet as the ideal method for large organizations Mohamed, literature review on recruitment and selection,p.

Closely behind the internet at 89 per cent was the use of career literature such as Prospects, Prospects Today, and GET directory Mohamed,p. Other methods such as milk rounds and career fairs were less popular after the survey findings estimated its popularity at 45 per cent each while recruitment agencies was the least popular at 15 per cent Mohamed,p. Similarly, the survey also considered the cause literature review on recruitment and selection variations in terms of selection methods used by employers in the UK graduate recruitment and selection industry Mohamed,p.

From the survey, the use of CVs and Cover letters was mostly preferred by small and medium-sized employers while the use of assessment centers and aptitude tests were less preferred by most employers Mohamed,p.

Shortlisting of respondents before inviting them for the interview was also revealed as one of the commonly used selection methods Mohamed,p.

In situations where interviews were conducted, a combination of both single and panel interviews was used with variations in compositions of literature review on recruitment and selection in the interviewing panel Mohamed,p. Speaking of reasons for the variations in recruiting and selection methods among the graduates, accuracy and relevancy of the selection and recruitment methods seemed to be the overriding factor Mohamed,p.

To that purpose, employers cited the employer application form as being the most accurate and reliable method for assessing the characteristics and qualities of potential employees Mohamed,p. In terms of cost saving, the CV and covering letter provided the highest cost saving levels due to the ease of sending and in providing more information.

Equally noteworthy was the use of interviews in gathering crucial but first information about the applicants. The two-interaction, fairness, ability to fill gaps left by other forms, and the ease of validation were cited as the factors that promoted the use of interviews in the selection process Mohamed,literature review on recruitment and selection, p. This strategy was immensely popular in the UK some two decades ago before the expansion and development of the information age.

Additionally, companies advertise and promote the available employment opportunities directly to the participating students. Many a time, the associated companies involved in these milk rounds had periodic graduate trainee programs that were specifically developed and designed to absorb fresh graduates, train them, and provide the literature review on recruitment and selection exposure to issues relating to the business world. Career services such as university outreach programmes and linkages were responsible for organizing the trade fairs in liaison with particular companies.

However, this method slowly lost its popularity due to technological advancements and increased use of the internet. Most companies have created web-based recruitment strategies such as CV databases, job boards, and recruiting agencies.

Companies have even gone to an extent of using the internet for job advertising, filling online application forms, and even conducting online tests such aptitude tests Mohamed,p. The current employees within the organization can act as a rich source of providing linkages to potential recruits, literature review on recruitment and selection. They might hold vital information about graduates who can match the available position within the organization and such individuals might not be in a position of responding to normal recruitment methods Shiona, This can be attributed to the fact that most of such employees might be occupied in other jobs and might not be actively searching for job placements.

However, they might be enticed to look for other available employment opportunities if the right opportunity presents itself along the literature review on recruitment and selection. Such a strategy can be encouraged by offering bonuses to employees who provide leads through referrals.

 

 

literature review on recruitment and selection

 

Literature review of Recruitment and Selection in International Human Resource Management Introduction Staffing is one of the main functions on Human Resource Management, refer to International Human Resource Management perspective, staffing will be more important on the managing by the headquartered company to their subsidiaries in order to gain more competitive advantage for them. By conclude this literature review, the study emphasizes on the fact that the recruitment and selection process is integrated with other processes such as strategic plan of the company, training and development schemes, compensation, rewarding/incentive system, performance appraisal, and lastly, industrial relations. Literature Review on Recruitment and Selection Practices of RBL Submitted to: Dr. Mohammad Thoufiqul Islam Associate Professor Department of Management University of Dhaka Submitted by: Md. Mahmudul Hassan Munna MBA Serial NO: Department of Management University of .